5 facets of the coming Internet of Things boom

A McKinsey study attempts to quantify the economic impact of IoT

Predictions that the Internet of Things (IoT) will usher in a new era of prosperity get some backing in a new study by consulting firm McKinsey & Company.

The study estimates that the annual value of IoT applications may be equivalent — in the best case — to about 11% of the world’s economy in 2025. That’s based on a number of assumptions, including the willingness of governments and vendors to enable interoperability through policies and technologies.

IOT is expected to deliver improvements to the reliability of machines, as well as to individual health and life overall. But it may also be intrusive on privacy, and while the IoT will create new jobs, it will cost some as well.

Here are five major points from this report:
Business IoT applications, not consumer uses, will create more business value, according to McKinsey. No surprise here. Consumer applications such as connected toasters, coffee pots and home entertainment systems offer little in terms of real value — but they do get attention. Enterprise IoT is being used to predict and avoid failures in high-value machinery, such as locomotives and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) devices. It also allows business to switch from scheduled maintenance programs to condition-based maintenance, where service is performed as needed,l not based on a calendar. This increases equipment reliability and efficient deployment of personnel.

A major share of the IoT’s financial gains are through avoided cost. For instance, doctors can use IoT to monitor a patient’s health. If the person is a diabetic, careful monitoring may prevent hospitalizations. This includes the use not only of wearables but of devices that can be implanted, injected and ingested.
Virtual reality is part of IoT. Virtual reality goggles will observe and guide you step-by-step through an installation process at home and work. This capability will likely arrive first on factory floors and equipment repair shops, but eventually it’ll be available at home.

McKinsey estimates that IoT’s potential economic impact at between $3.9 trillion and $11.1 trillion globally per year by 2025. But interoperability accounts for about 40% of this potential value. Equipment makers now collect data performance info from their own machines, but interoperability with other systems will give an integrated view and improve predictive analysis in environments that use multiple systems. In a municipal setting, for instance, interoperability means that video, cell phone data and vehicle sensors could be used to monitor and optimize traffic flow.

The efficiency gains delivered by IoT will deliver a mixed bag of benefits for human workers. Better equipment monitoring and ubiquitous deployment of sensors may reduce injuries. It could also help eliminate some travel for employees who have to go to remote sites. But McKinsey warns, “some IoT applications in worksite environments substantially reduce the number of employees needed.”

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Tech salaries from industry verticals

In today’s digital world, technology has become a part of everything we do. It touches all parts of today’s marketplace, so it’s not surprising that the tech job market continues to pick up steam. In fact, according to a recent report from staffing firm Modis, demand in the technology job market is expected to grow 18 percent by the year 2022.

Ever wondered if the grass is really greener in another industry? Technology professionals are needed in virtually every business, which opens a world of possibilities to those looking to build a career. But which industry vertical is the right one for you? We can’t answer that, but we can tell you which ones offer the best compensation.

Recently Computerworld and IDG Enterprise conducted their 29th annual salary survey. More than 4,800 IT professionals were surveyed to better understand the needs and wants of tech professionals and IT pros, ongoing trends in the workplace and, of course, salary information across a host of industry verticals. What they found was that compensation for tech jobs increased 3.6 percent over the last year. But how does that pan out across the different industries like manufacturing, education, government, healthcare and others?

Government tech salaries
All IT salaries are not created equal, and each industry has its own average salary for any given technology job and the first stop on our list is the U.S. Government. Coming in at number 5 are tech workers in the government sector. On average, workers here make considerably less than in, say, the manufacturing industry. However, the business of the people never stops, which may make some feel more secure.

Education tech salaries
Colleges have radically changed how classes are delivered and taught. Today’s technology allows students to get a degree from anywhere they can connect to the Internet, bringing education to more people than ever before. Most universities now offer online courses and along with that growth comes new opportunities for tech jobs growth.

IT computer-related services and consulting tech salaries
The IT computer-related services and consulting industry comes in surprisingly at number 5 on the list of highest paid tech salaries. According to Computerworld’s Salary Survey data, on average, the vice president of IT is the highest paid tech worker in this industry making just over $151,000 annually.

Healthcare tech salaries
Technology adds its own challenge to each industry, but healthcare IT seems to be facing a myriad of major challenges, many heavily anchored in technology like telemedicine, ICD-10 implementation and HIPPA/Privacy issues for example. Challenges like this are creating shortages of healthcare IT workers creating opportunities for those steeped in healthcare with a passion for technology.

Legal/Insurance/Real Estate tech salaries
Who of us hasn’t looked for an apartment or shopped for insurance online? The proliferation of apps and websites to support the real estate industry is just one demonstration of how much this industry has evolved into a digital marketplace. The highest average salary here comes in at number three on our list where the CIO averages nearly $192,000.

Manufacturing tech salaries
According to Computerworld’s salary survey data, 49 percent of the tech workers who responded said compensation was the most important factor to them when it comes to job satisfaction and very few industries boast salaries higher than in the manufacturing industry, which tops the list of highest-paid tech salaries.

In this regularly evolving part of the marketplace, CIOs average more than $192,000. That’s not surprising when you think of all the organizations trying to better use technology to innovate and shorten time to market.

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Breach detection: Five fatal flaws and how to avoid them

Even in advanced shops, perimeter-based defense practices still linger, practices based on flawed thinking

IT Security today is not about defending a (non-existent) perimeter, but about protecting the organization’s attack surface, which has changed dramatically due to the cloud, mobility, BYOD, and other advances in corporate computing that have caused fundamental shifts in network architecture and operations.

Practically speaking, it means you need to monitor what is occurring inside the firewall just as much (if not more) than what is outside trying to make its way in. Think of it as a post breach mindset based on a “1,000 points of light” model as opposed to a “moat and castle” model of defense.

In theory its evolutionary, but given the accelerated pace in which security organizations have matured, it is not necessarily an easy transition to make. Not only has the threat landscape changed, but there has been constant flux in the leadership, skills, tools and budget required.

As a result, even in advanced shops, perimeter-based defense practices still linger. Practices based on flawed thinking or misconceptions, which if left unchecked, hinder fast detection and response. Here are some of the ones we see the most:

* Fixation on penetration prevention. Solution: Shift to an “Already compromised” mindset. With APTs more prominent than ever, it’s no longer about if you get breached, but when. You should evolve your security defense accordingly. Instead of focusing on preventing penetration, focus on the adversarial activity that is going on within your network. The good news is you have an advantage; the majority of damage is usually done several months after penetration. Hackers tend to deploy ‘low and slow’ techniques and perform minimal actions per day in order to evade detection, better understand the organization and craft a foolproof roadmap to reach their true target.

* Accepting simple explanations. Solution: Always dig deeper. Security events are not caused by error or accident. Every piece of evidence should be over-analyzed and malicious intent must always be considered. Because your security teams cannot know all adversarial activities, in a sense they are at a disadvantage; therefore, it is crucial for the teams to over-investigate what they can see in order to reveal other unknown and undetected connecting elements. Security teams must always assume they only see half the picture, working diligently to uncover the rest of the pieces of the puzzle.

* Striving for fast remediation. Solution: Leverage the known. Instead of remediating isolated incidents as fast as possible, the security team should closely monitor the known to understand how it connects to other elements within the environment and strive to reveal the unknown. For example, an unknown malicious process can be revealed if it is connecting to the same IP address as a detected known malicious process. Moreover, when you reveal to the hackers which of their tools are easy to detect, hackers can purposely deploy, in excess, the known tools to distract and waste the defender’s time.

* Focusing on malware. Solution: Focus on the entire attack. Although detecting malware is important, solutions that mainly focus on detecting isolated activity on individual endpoints are unable to properly combat complex hacking operations. Instead, employ a more holistic defense. Leverage automation – analytics and threat intelligence in particular – in order to gain context on the entire malicious operation, as opposed to just the code. Keep in mind that your adversary is a person and malware is one of their most powerful tools, but one of many in their tool kits.

* Letting false alerts get the best of you. Solution: Automate investigation. Because many security solutions produce a large amount of sporadic alerts (many false) with little context, security teams spend endless hours manually investigating and validating alerts produced by their solutions. This lengthy process significantly prolongs security teams from addressing the real question – is there a cyber-attack underway?  Here’s another case where the proper use of automation can dramatically increase productivity as well as detection and response times, which results in less costly and damaging attacks. If there are budgetary constraints that prevent the proper use of automation to aid you in this process, quantify the value the investment you are asking the company to make.

Like many aspects of IT, breach detection is part art, part science. However, what distinguishes a good analyst from a great one is how they think. Avoiding these misconceptions enable security teams to approach breach detection much more strategically and make better use of the resources at their disposal.


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Attacking IT security firm was ‘silly thing to do,’ says Kaspersky

It takes a lot of guts for Kaspersky Lab to come forward and admit it was a victim of a hack. Eugene Kaspersky said the “sophisticated, very well-planned attack on our networks, most probably carried out by a government-backed group” was a “silly thing to do.”

So the elevation of privilege patch MS15-061 that Microsoft issued yesterday and labeled as “important” should perhaps be considered “critical” since it was exploited as a zero-day by Duqu 2.0 attackers. Kaspersky Lab reported it to Microsoft and waited for the patch to be released before explaining how it was used against the company.

It takes a lot of guts for Kaspersky to come forward and admit it was a victim of a hack, but it also takes plenty of nerve to disclose nation-state attacks like Duqu, Flame and Gauss, since Duqu attackers link back to Stuxnet. Those same attackers came after Kaspersky with Duqu 2.0.

Eugene Kaspersky said the “sophisticated, very well-planned attack on our networks, most probably carried out by a government-backed group” was a “silly thing to do.” He wrote:

The malware used for this attack is extremely innovative and advanced. For example, it resides in the RAM – the short-term memory of the computer – and tries very hard to avoid making any changes to the hard drive. Its “persistence mechanism” (or rather, its absence) is quite brilliant. Some very serious thinking went into it, and a great many man-hours of some very bright – criminal – minds were spent developing it, meaning millions of dollars were spent on it, too. It’s also likely that the attackers believed it was impossible to detect. Now, I’ve always taken a lot of pride in our people and our technologies, but that pride’s been given a major boost by this news. For it proves one thing: attacking us leads to just one outcome: you get caught – no matter how clever you are. And besides, our initial investigation shows that their catch was not all that impressive.

Although the attackers managed to get access to data related to Kaspersky Lab’s “R&D and new technologies” – and maybe that was the spies were after – it didn’t disrupt the operations and the Duqu 2.0 attack didn’t put Kaspersky’s customers and partners at risk, Kaspersky said.

But the bad guy spies were also after finding out about Kaspersky’s investigations, detection methods and analysis capabilities. “Since we’re well known for successfully fighting sophisticated threats, they sought this information to try stay under our radar. No chance,” Kaspersky wrote on the Kaspersky Lab blog. And if spying on their capabilities was what the attackers were after, it’s “accessible under licensing agreements (at least some of them)!”

The malware is impressively scary, although the Kaspersky Lab blog said to the attackers, “People living in glass houses shouldn’t throw stones.”

Governments attacking IT security companies is simply outrageous. We’re supposed to be on the same side as responsible nations, sharing the common goal of a safe and secure cyberworld. We share our knowledge to fight cybercrime and help investigations become more effective. There are many things we do together to make this cyberworld a better place. But now we see some members of this ‘community’ paying no respect to laws, professional ethics or common sense.

To me, it’s another clear signal we need globally-accepted rules of the game to curb digital espionage and prevent cyberwarfare. If various murky groups – often government-linked – treat the Internet as a Wild West with no rules and run amok with impunity, it will put the sustainable global progress of information technologies at serious risk. So I’m once again calling on all responsible governments to come together and agree on such rules, and to fight against cybercrime and malware, not sponsor and promote it.

“By targeting Kaspersky Lab, the Duqu attackers have probably taken a huge bet hoping they’d remain undiscovered; and lost,” concludes the Duqu 2.0 (pdf) technical paper. “For a security company, one of the most difficult things is to admit falling victim to a malware attack. At Kaspersky Lab, we strongly believe in transparency, which is why we are publishing the information herein.”

Securelist advised “to check your network for Duqu’s 2.0 presence” as it lists several indicators of compromise, or you can use the open IOC file. Articles detailing Duqu 2.0 are popping up all over the place, but I highly recommend reading the technical paper for yourself. Other Duqu 2.0 victims included a certificate authority in Hungary, companies in the Industrial Control System sector, industrial computers and P5+1 events and venues related to negotiating with Iran over its nuclear program.

Additionally, Symantec discovered Duqu 2.0 attackers have no shortage of targets, having gone after “a European telecoms operator, a North African telecoms operator, and a South East Asian electronic equipment manufacturer. Infections were also found on computers located in the US, UK, Sweden, India, and Hong Kong.”

“Duqu 2.0 is a fully featured information-stealing tool that is designed to maintain a long term, low profile presence on the target’s network,” Symantec said. “Its creators have likely used it as one of their main tools in multiple intelligence gathering campaigns.”

Yeah, so about that patch Microsoft rated as “important” … you might get on that right away and think of it more along the lines of critical. Don’t be surprised the patch only ranked as “important” to Microsoft; after all, the company only successfully patched Stuxnet in March 2015. Yes Microsoft did release a patch for Stuxnet in 2010, but as HP’s Zero Day Initiative said, “The patch failed. And for more than four years, all Windows systems have been vulnerable to exactly the same attack that Stuxnet used for initial deployment.”

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Predicting the next CompTIA A+ Exam

Predicting the next CompTIA A+ Exam

Predicting what might be new, improved, or omitted from the next round of CompTIA A+ Certification exams.

Inevitably, CompTIA A+ Certification, the vendor-neutral certification for entry-level computer technicians, has always provided a rear-view-mirror image of computer and network technology. It takes time to determine which operating systems, products, and procedures are necessary for technicians to learn and master, and which ones are doomed to become Jeopardy questions (“Tech Fads for $200, Alex”), such as Microsoft BOB or CueCat. With the next iteration of the CompTIA A+ Certification exams expected in late 2015 or early 2016, it’s anyone’s guess what the exams will look for. However, it’s a useful exercise, so here goes.

What Should Be Added?
In the next generation of exams, I hope to see the following. Let’s start with an easy one:
Coverage of Windows 8.1 or possibly Windows “Threshold”/9

Windows 8.1’s PC Settings menus can be used to configure many (but not all) of the operating systems’s settings.

Windows 8/8.1 present new challenges for tech support, and even though you can still use the Control Panel, anyone working the Help Desk for Windows 8/8.1 has to handle a lot of questions that revolve around the Start screen and its system management features.

Will Windows 9 make the cut? If it is released in the spring of 2015 as expected, there might be enough time. Otherwise, I’d expect it to show up in a refresh of the next exam, much as Windows 7 content was added in a refresh of the 220-701/702 exams a few years ago.

Now, let’s kick it up a notch:
Coverage of Bootable CDs for Troubleshooting

Bypassing an infected operating system with a rescue CD is an important skill that deserves to be covered in the next release of CompTIA A+ Certification exams.

With malware infections capable of preventing computer access to the Internet and installed anti-malware apps, techs frequently need to create and use boot CDs or DVDs that can be used for malware removal, file copying, and disk partitioning. With the number of vendors on the market, it might make the most sense to cover basic features and generalized usage rather than specific step-by-step procedures.

Creating a virtual machine (VM) using Oracle VM VirtualBox

Virtualization is barely touched upon in the current generation of CompTIA A+ Certification objectives. However, whether a tech is working a help desk, testing apps, or testing an operating system, understanding the basic process of setting up a virtualization environment and installing an OS and common apps in a virtual machine is increasingly important. I think it’s time to add to this topic.

The current CompTIA A+ Certification exams ignore multifunction device functions other than printing.

Although multifunction devices (print, scan, copy, fax) devices are much more common than print-only devices, the current CompTIA A+ Certification Printing domain ignores these other features. It’s time to expect certification candidates to have a basic grasp of scanning and copying resolutions and how to set up fax services.

Cross-Platform Networking

The current Networking domain has a strong hardware component, but needs more depth in configuration issues, especially given the greater popularity of MacOS, Android, and iOS devices on SOHO and corporate networks. The exams need objectives covering networks supporting multiple OSes, including basic setup, file sharing, and device sharing.

Missing Objectives in Mobile Devices

With the proliferation of mobile devices in corporations, expect to see more iOS content in the next CompTIA A+ Certification exams

Mobile devices occupy an entire domain in the current tests. Unfortunately, the current test objectives miss two of the most significant issues with mobile devices: BYOD (“bring your own device”) security and mobile device troubleshooting. With tablets starting to outsell laptops and the laptop market splitting into three parts (iOS, Android, and Windows 8.x/9), the mobile device domain badly needs a makeover.

So, those are my nominees for new and improved coverage. Is it time to cut anything loose?

Now Departing…?

Although Windows XP is “officially” no longer supported by Microsoft, some large companies are continuing to pay for support for their vast fleets of XP-based desktop, laptop, and embedded systems. Windows XP is also the base OS for many financial institutions’ ATM machines. CompTIA has never been in a hurry to discontinue coverage of older operating systems, so I’m on the fence about this one. However, it’s probably safe to say that if XP makes the cut for the next test round, that test will probably be the last time XP appears.

What about Windows Vista? Usage-share stats from organizations such as Net Applications, StatCounter, and others show Windows Vista with usage of under 5%, so if CompTIA feels it’s necessary to cut loose an older OS, Vista is a clear candidate.

Now It’s Your Turn

CompTIA A+ Certification is designed to be the first step for IT careerists. What do you think should be on the next generation of tests? Like my suggestions? Think they’re crazy? Sound off in the comments.

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CompTIA Network+ Exam Code N10-006

CompTIA Network+ Exam Code N10-006
Network+ Certification Network+ is an ISO-17024 compliant, vendor-neutral technology certification that verifies the certified individual has the skills and knowledge needed to take on a pivotal role in building, managing, and protecting the critical asset that is the data network.

Recommended as a first professional-level networking certification
Held by nearly half a million people worldwide
12% job growth expected for Network & Computer Systems Administrators (2012 – 2022, according to the BLS
The leading vendor-neutral, globally-recognized networking certification
ISO 17025 compliant
Fulfills US DoD Directive 8570.01-M
Jobs that use Network+

Network Administrator
Network Technician
Network Installer
Help Desk Technician
IT Cable Installer

Keeping the world connected
Network+ helps IT Professionals around the world advance their careers. Don’t just take our word for it. See for yourself in this 2 minute video.

A new version of Network+ (N10-006) will launch on February 28, 2015. The new exam has been updated to reflect the current thinking of industry professionals as well as to reflect technologies used today, with a greater emphasis on practical knowledge, especially how to identify and use elements of a network infrastructure. Significant changes include:

Additional IPv6 concepts.
Emphasis on troubleshooting.
Additional security knowledge.
Knowledge of how to administer key systems.

The main differences between CompTIA Network+ N10-005 and Network+ N10-006 are the following:
Updated terms and technologies in the IT networking field.
More hands-on experiences such as installing, configuring, implementing, managing and troubleshooting.
Three new topics:
Compare and contrast physical security controls.
Summarize basic forensic concepts.
Summarize safety practices.

Companies such as Dell, HP, Ricoh, Sharp and Xerox recommend or require CompTIA Network+ for their networking technicians. It is also a technical prerequisite option for IT technicians seeking to join the Apple Consultants Network, and is recognized by the U.S. Department of Defense.

The CompTIA Network+ce program is included in the scope of this accreditation, and may be kept current through the CompTIA Continuing Education program.

Test Details
Exam Codes N10-005
JK0-019 (for CompTIA Academy Partners only) N10-006
JK0-023 (for CompTIA Academy Partners only)
Launch Date 1-Dec-11 28-Feb-15

Number of Questions Maximum of 100 questions Maximum of 90 questions
Type of Questions Multiple choice and performance-based

Passing Score
720 (on a scale of 100-900)

Recommended Experience
CompTIA A+ Certification (9) months of networking experience

Languages English, Japanese, German, Simplified Chinese, Korean, Spanish, Traditional Chinese
English at launch (2/28/15) Japanese and German – in development


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A technician has verified that a recent loss of network connectivity to multiple workstations is due
to a bad CAT5 cable in the server room wall. Which of the following tools can be used to locate its
physical location within the wall?

A. Cable certifier
B. Multimeter
C. Cable tester
D. Toner probe

Answer: D


Which of the following is used to authenticate remote workers who connect from offsite? (Select

B. VTP trunking
C. Virtual PBX
E. 802.1x

Answer: D,E


Which of the following network infrastructure implementations would be used to support files being
transferred between Bluetooth-enabled smartphones?


Answer: A


Which of the following would be used in an IP-based video conferencing deployment? (Select

A. RS-232
B. 56k modem
C. Bluetooth
D. Codec

Answer: D,E


Which of the following helps prevent routing loops?

A. Routing table
B. Default gateway
C. Route summarization
D. Split horizon

Answer: D


Which of the following is MOST likely to use an RJ-11 connector to connect a computer to an ISP
using a POTS line?

A. Multilayer switch
B. Access point
C. Analog modem
D. DOCSIS modem

Answer: C


An administrator has a virtualization environment that includes a vSAN and iSCSI switching.
Which of the following actions could the administrator take to improve the performance of data
transfers over iSCSI switches?

A. The administrator should configure the switch ports to auto-negotiate the proper Ethernet
B. The administrator should configure each vSAN participant to have its own VLAN.
C. The administrator should connect the iSCSI switches to each other over inter-switch links (ISL).
D. The administrator should set the MTU to 9000 on the each of the participants in the vSAN.

Answer: D


A network topology that utilizes a central device with point-to-point connections to all other devices
is which of the following?

A. Star
B. Ring
C. Mesh
D. Bus

Answer: A


A technician is connecting a NAS device to an Ethernet network. Which of the following
technologies will be used to encapsulate the frames?

B. Fibre channel

Answer: C


The network install is failing redundancy testing at the MDF. The traffic being transported is a
mixture of multicast and unicast signals. Which of the following would BEST handle the rerouting
caused by the disruption of service?

A. Layer 3 switch
B. Proxy server
C. Layer 2 switch
D. Smart hub

Answer: A


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4 new access points deliver super-fast Wi-Fi

Linksys, Xclaim, Amped and ZyXel bring 802.11ac to SMB, enterprise markets.
access points fast wifi 1

Access points put to the test
We put four new access points to the test, from Linksys, Xclaim, Amped and ZyXel, using the same test-bed and methods as our last review. The Linksys LAPAC1750PRO performed best in the throughput tests and was a feature-rich product. The Amped Wireless AP was a close second in the speed tests and is a solid business-class access point. The Xclaim unit did well given it’s only a two stream (2×2) AP. The ZyXEL unit was last in throughput, but has a number of advanced features in the areas of configuration, management and security. (Read our full review.)

Amped Wireless APR175P
Targeted at the SMB market, the Amped Wireless APR175P bills itself as a high-power long range access point. Priced at $299.99, it is a dual-band three stream (3×3) 802.11ac AP, offering theoretical data rates up to 1,300Mbps for 802.11ac. In our testing, the maximum throughput was 335.6Mbps. This is the only access point in the review that sports external antennas, which provides for either ceiling or wall mounting. In addition to the three external antenna, it has six high power amplifiers and six wireless reception (low noise) amplifiers.

This access point is the only one in the review that supports a router mode. Additionally, it’s the only one that specifically touts being long range and high-power at 500mW output. The built-in controller functionality supports the central management of up to seven access points. This access point allows you to create up to 32 SSIDs with VLAN support. This unit offers load balancing and an intrusion detection system (when in router mode). It also offers an internal RADIUS server supporting the PEAP and TLS methods of 802.1X authentication, enabling the use of the Enterprise mode of WPA2 security.

Linksys LAPAC1750PRO
The Linksys LAPAC1750PRO is targeted towards small and midsized businesses (SMBs) and is priced at $499.99. It is a dual-band three stream (3×3) 802.11ac AP, offering theoretical data rates up to 1,300Mbps for 802.11ac. In our testing, it maxxed out at 436.3Mbps. Inside the unit are three 4.4 dBi internal antennas for 2.4GHz and three 5.2 dBi gain antennas for 5GHz. On the back of the unit are two PoE Gigabit Ethernet ports (one with PoE), AC power jack, and a small reset button.
access points fast wifi 5

When using the Cluster feature, you can centrally manage up to 16 access points using the built-in controller functionality. Once you enable the clustering feature on one access point, others access points will join that cluster. You can centrally change the configuration settings of the cluster via any access point in the cluster. This unit supports the use of up to 16 SSIDs with VLAN support. In addition to traditional AP mode, you can use the unit in WDS and workgroup bridge modes. Its Captive Portal feature supports guest, local, and external RADIUS authentication and can do URL redirection upon authentication. This access point supports rogue AP detection, band steering, and beamforming. It also has basic load balancing functionality.

Xclaim Xi-3
The Xclaim Xi-3 from Ruckus Wireless retails for $199 and is targeted towards small businesses and small office/home office (SOHO) environments and to the non-IT users. It’s the only two stream (2×2) AP in this review, thus naturally offering lower maximum data rates than the other APs: up to 867Mbps for 802.11ac. It hit 315.7 Mbps in our testing. The Xclaim unit has a look and feel between a consumer router and a business access point. On the back/bottom of the access point you’ll find one PoE LAN port, a secondary Ethernet port, small reset button, and an AC power jack. On the back/bottom of the Xclaim AP are the typical AP ports and buttons.

Unlike most other business-class products, this unit is primarily designed to be setup and managed via a mobile app, called Harmony for Xclaim. This unit only provides the traditional AP mode; no WDS or wireless bridging supported. The built-in controller functionality offers central management via the mobile app with a recommended maximum of 10 APs. You can create up to four SSIDs per access point with VLAN support. As far as advanced features, the unit has band steering, an enhanced QoS functionality called automatic traffic prioritization, and a feature called airtime fairness to help curve the negative impact from older or slower devices.

The ZyXel WAC6503D-S, priced at $899, is targeted towards the enterprise-level market. It is a three stream (3×3) 802.11ac AP and offers theoretical data rates up to 1,300Mbps for 802.11ac. However, in our testing, it only reached 232.6Mbps. The unit is designed for ceiling mounting, with the smoke detector look and feel.

On the front/top of the AP you’ll find seven LED status lights. On the back/bottom you’ll find three Ethernet ports: PoE port for uplink, secondary LAN port, and one for console access. You’ll find a small reset button and AC power jack as well.

A separate NXC Series WLAN controller is required for full central management capabilities. In addition to the regular AP mode, this access point supports WDS and a monitor mode for rogue access point detection. This ZyXEL AP supports up to 16 SSIDs with VLAN support. It has load balancing and band steering functionality. This AP series has what the company calls its Smart Antenna technology, which dynamically chooses the best of more than 700 antenna patterns to use for transmitting to individual clients

Included free of charge is the ZyXEL Wireless Optimizer (ZWO) software, which is a mapped-based Wi-Fi simulation, planning, and surveying tool.

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How to fix repeated “an unknown issue occurred and Google Drive needs to quit” error?

I keep getting this error message when trying to sync a folder with Google Drive on my Windows 8 PC. Any suggestions on how to fix it?

For Macs:
Select “Quit Google Drive” from the sync client menu.
2. In Finder select “Go” –> “Go to Folder…”.
3. Enter this, exactly: ~/Library/Application Support/Google/Drive
4. Open the folder titled “cloud_graph”.
5. Delete the file titled “dict_2.db”.
6. Restart the desktop sync client.

For PCs:
1. Select “Quit Google Drive” from the sync client menu.
2. Select “Choose File”, and navigate to: %UserProfile%\AppData\Local\Google\Drive
3. Open the folder titled “cloud_graph”.
4. Delete the file titled “dict_2.db”.
5. Restart the desktop sync client.”

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Complete CompTIA Exams Training for $50 Unlimited Life Time Access Membership

Complete CompTIA Exams Training for $50 Unlimited Life Time Access Membership

CompTIA Boot Camps
For IT Pros that need to get CompTIA certified fast – guaranteed – in just days! Accelerated classroom training that lets you stay, study, and sit for your certification exams all in one place. CompTIA Authorized Partner Program Trainer; Official CompTIA Courseware; Exam Simulators; On-site Test Vouchers; State-of-the-art Training and Lab Equipment; CompTIA Certified CTT+ Instructors; and much more…

CompTIA Online Self-study Courses
CompTIA approved e-learning courseware. Online training lets you study for your certification exams on your schedule – when and where you want! These courses map directly to the learning objectives required to successfully pass the CompTIA exams.

CompTIA eBooks
Certkingdom Referenceware from Books24x7®, provides the ultimate productivity, learning and reference solution for IT professionals. Certkingdom delivers the full contents of thousands of books, reports, documents and more in a fully searchable, Web-based environment. This professional information tool is packed with recent, relevant, best-in-class technical reference material from trusted publishers such as Wrox, MIT Press, McGraw-Hill Osborne, Wiley and many others. This comprehensive resource spans the spectrum of technology topics, including all CompTIA certifications. Hundreds of thousands of IT professionals already rely on Certkingdom for instant self-directed learning, reference, and assistance.

CompTIA Test Preps
Certkingdom Exams allow learners to test their knowledge in a simulated certification-testing environment, for many of the most popular certification exams from Microsoft, Cisco, Oracle, CompTIA and PMI. Each Certkingdom Exam maps to 100% of the objectives on the vendor exam. Study Mode: The un-timed Study Mode allows learners to assess their knowledge and receive detailed responses after each question. For additional information, students are directed to specific sections of relevant courses for further study. Certification Mode: The against-the-clock Certification Mode is designed to mimic a certification exam. In Certification Mode, detailed feedback is available after the exam has been completed.

CompTIA A+
Covers preventative maintenance, basic networking, installation, troubleshooting, communication and professionalism.

CompTIA Network+
Covers managing, maintaining, troubleshooting, operating and configuring basic network infrastructure.

CompTIA Security+
Covers system security, network infrastructure, cryptography, assessments and audits.

CompTIA Advanced Security Practitioner
Covers the technical knowledge and skills required to conceptualize, design, and engineer secure solutions across complex enterprise environments. It involves applying critical thinking and judgment across a broad spectrum of security disciplines to propose and implement solutions that map to enterprise drivers.

CompTIA Server+
Covers areas such as RAID, SCSI, managing multiple CPUs and disaster recovery.

CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI
Covers user administration, file permissions, software configurations and the fundamental management of Linux systems.

IT Job Resource Center
Despite the high unemployment rate in the United States, there are more than 450,000 IT job openings in the country. Many of these jobs require skills that are tested through CompTIA certifications. CompTIA wants to help match unemployed candidates with IT aptitude to these jobs.

The IT industry offers a multi-pronged career development roadmap in key technology areas for individuals new to the field and IT professionals in transition.

Regardless of the path chosen, CompTIA credentials can be essential stepping stones in achieving this goal.

Service/Help Desk
CompTIA certifications like CompTIA A+, the entry-level rite of passage for IT technicians, and CompTIA PDI+ for printer and document-imaging technicians are the foundation for roles including computer service technician, help desk technician, network support technician, field support technician and service center technician.

Network Administration
Foundation programs including CompTIA’s entry-level CompTIA A+ certification to CompTIA Network+ and CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI for professionals with 12 months experience and CompTIA Server+ and CompTIA CTP+ following 18-24 months experience can lead to job functions including server technician, system administrator, network support technician, Internet systems administrator and field support technician.

Security / Networking

Building on the fundamentals provided in CompTIA A+, CompTIA Network+ and CompTIA Linux+ Powered by LPI, CompTIA Security+ covers network security, compliance and operational security, cryptography, threats and vulnerabilities, and identity management for security professionals with at least two years experience. Sample job functions include Internet security specialist, network analyst, systems administrator, database administrator and software engineer.

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Comptia A+ Essentials Exam Simulator

Certkigndom.com A+ Essentials exam simulator consists of 425+ questions with Flash cards. The tests are offered in two modes. A. Online version, and b. Downloadable version. In the online version, a user need to take the tests online after logging in to the website (Internet connectivity is required). In the download version, a user may download the Certkingdom, and take the test on his/her desktop computer.

CompTIA® A+ Essentials Exam Simulator (220-801) Details

Exam Simulator Cert A+ Essentials

Exam Objectives Covered PC Hardware 40%
Networking 27%
Laptops 10%
Printers 11%
Operational Procedures 11%
Total 100%

Number of questions in the practice test 425+ questions

Question Types Multiple Choice Single/Multiple Answer, Exhibit type.

The important features of the Exam Simulator:

Up to date practice questions with detailed explanations.
Immediate online activation.
Verify for any product updates.
Store and view results at a later date, or review answers.
Integrated Test Environment that allows for installed/available test modules.
Supports several question types including multiple choice, true/false, fill-in-the-blanks, drag-n-drop, etc. that provide close to actual exam environment.

Flash cards.
220-801 and 220-802 training, 220-801 and 220-802 videos, 220-801 and 220-802 online training, 220-801 and 220-802 study guide, 220-801 and 220-802 ebooks
Number of Exams

Two exams (maximum of 90 questions, 90 minutes): 220-801 and 220-802 (JK0-801 and JK0-802 for CompTIA Academy Partners)

Cost per Exam
$194 USD per exam; Exams offered by Pearson VUE: www.pearsonvue.com/comptia

Exam vouchers available at CompTIA

URL certification.comptia.org/getCertified/certifications/a.aspx

Self-Study Materials CompTIA Study Materials: CompTIA offers a number of self-study materials including exam objectives, sample questions, study guides (nominal fee of $50 USD), as well
as classroom and e-learning training opportunities. Credential seekers may also want to check out the CertMaster online learning tool.

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You can download your Google search history, but you should delete it instead

There’s been a lot of talk lately about Google’s ability to let users download their search histories. Deleting it is a better option.

There’s been a lot of Internet buzz this week about the “news” that Google lets users download their search histories. Many Web commentators seem to find this capability fascinating, even though it’s been in place at least since 2014 without anyone really noticing.

But here’s my question: Aside from morbid curiosity, why would you really want to download it at all?

In fact, while your search history apparently has value for Google, which claims it helps the company deliver “more relevant results,” “smarter predictions,” and cross-device connections, it’s hard to see what benefit seeing it has for the actual searcher. In fact, it seems more like a tool designed to help dig up search-history dirt on someone else!
042215 google search results download image 1

Given all that, why even collect it in the first place? Personally, I don’t notice dramatically better results when searching on my devices vs. someone else’s machines. Do you? Do you owe Google your search history in exchange for your Web searches? No, you don’t.

I recommend turning on the option to delete your Web Search history, and setting Google not to record that history. Furthermore, if you run an IT department, I’d recommend that all your users do the same thing.

Even if you think all your searches are innocuous, that history file is still a security risk. There’s simply not enough benefit to you or your company to bother keeping it.

If this mini Internet firestorm on this issue causes significant numbers of people to stop saving their search histories, then maybe it wasn’t so pointless after all.

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N10-006 CompTIA Network+

A technician has verified that a recent loss of network connectivity to multiple workstations is due
to a bad CAT5 cable in the server room wall. Which of the following tools can be used to locate its
physical location within the wall?

A. Cable certifier
B. Multimeter
C. Cable tester
D. Toner probe

Answer: D


Which of the following is used to authenticate remote workers who connect from offsite? (Select

B. VTP trunking
C. Virtual PBX
E. 802.1x

Answer: D,E


Which of the following network infrastructure implementations would be used to support files being
transferred between Bluetooth-enabled smartphones?


Answer: A


Which of the following would be used in an IP-based video conferencing deployment? (Select

A. RS-232
B. 56k modem
C. Bluetooth
D. Codec

Answer: D,E


Which of the following helps prevent routing loops?

A. Routing table
B. Default gateway
C. Route summarization
D. Split horizon

Answer: D


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Computer Technician Degrees Frequently Asked Questions

1) What Types of Computer Technician Degrees Exist and What are They Called?

Because the field of computer technology is ever evolving and changing, so too is the computer technician degree. With entries ranging from certificates to doctorate degrees, students can spend as little as a few weeks to eight years obtaining the degree that is right for them. To help narrow your search, we have included a wide range of degrees available in the area below.

Associate of Science in Computer Technology (A.S. Comp Tech): This undergraduate degree takes two years to earn and focuses on general aspects of computer technology. A good choice for the non-specified computer technician.

Associate in Information Technology (A.I.T.):
Information technology is a rapidly growing field and often involves the creation and management of databases, as well as other technical aspects. This degree is usually thought of as the starter to information technology.

Associate of Computer Engineering (A.S. Comp Eng):
A beginning entry level degree, this is for technicians who want to go into the entry level aspects of engineering.

Certification in Comp TIA A+:
The Comp TIA is one of the most recognized and utilized forms of computer technician certificates. It measures the skills learned and education of an entry level technology professional and even offers specialties in other areas such as security, server, and Linux.

Certification in Cisco:
Cisco remains one of the leaders in the computer technology field and is often utilized by many employers. The provider itself offers five different levels of certification from entry to architect.

Certification in Apple:
If looking to work with an employer that uses some, mostly, or all Mac computers, this is the certification for you. Computer technicians can choose to support the operating systems, servers, and much more.

Bachelor in Computer Science (B. Comp S.):
This four year undergraduate degree is another choice that covers general areas of science and computers. Several sub-specialties are also available.

Bachelor of Science in Computer Information Systems (B.S.C.I.S.):
Computer Information Systems is also another large area of computer technology. The bachelor’s is currently the most common offered undergraduate degree in the area.

Masters in Information Technology (M.I.T.):
The graduate degree takes six years to earn and focuses heavily on information systems. A benefit of the degree is that it is offered by many schools both online and in person.

Doctorate in Computer Science (Ph.D. Comp S.):
If looking to become a computer technician at the highest level, this degree may be for you. Taking six to eight years to complete, a Ph.D. is the only degree that can earn you the title of “Dr.”

Each degree can go onto have one or even several specialties. For example a Bachelor of Science in computers can be for networking, database administration, security, web development, and communications. Most schools are likely to offer several degrees and programs in computer technician, so it is important to do some digging before choosing the one that is right for you.

2) Where Can I Find Computer Technician Rankings?

Rankings for computer technician schools vary by what type of degree is being earned and at what level. For example, there are various standards for undergraduate degrees when being ranked by an entity such as “U.S. News and World Report.” They often use a cost versus quality of education but can overlook aspects such as demand for the degree in the private and public sectors. Be sure to identify the factors that are most important to you when looking through rankings, as those who do the ranking may not have the same priorities.

Graduate programs that offer a masters or doctorate degrees in computer technology are also capable of confusing potential students by offering online programs. Because a graduate degree is such a complex education to obtain, some feel that only an in-person program will do. However, with the growth of online schools, a degree obtained over the internet is becoming more and more accepted.

It is ultimately up to the student which degree or program they will choose by ranking schools according to their needs. Cost, time spent studying, appropriate learning facilities, and even student to teacher ratio can all be deciding factors when ranking a computer technician education.

3) Can I Transfer Computer Technician School Credits?

If you already have a college level degree or completed courses, transferring them to the appropriate school is of great importance. This can allow you to move along faster in a computer technician degree while saving hundreds to thousands of dollars. The trick is knowing what credits can transfer and where they can transfer to.

The easiest way to know the answer to the above is to speak with a counselor at the school in which you have earned the credits. It is their job to keep up to date with who is accepting what, what courses to transfer, and how many will transfer. For example, someone who wants to obtain a Bachelor of Science in Computer Technology from a university can begin at a junior or community college. Basics courses such as math, science, and history are taken at a fraction of the cost and then transferred to the university for the same degree given to those who took first and/or second year classes there.

Another option for transferring computer technician school credits is using one degree to supplement another. Someone with an associate’s degree in the sciences can apply that towards a bachelor in science or even vice versa and between specialties. If looking to get a masters or doctorate degree, having a four year undergraduate cannot only cut time spent studying by years but is sometimes a requirement. Generally, if one has an applicable bachelor’s degree, it takes two years to get a master’s or four years to get a doctorate depending on the degree or program.

Finally, the difference between nationally and regionally accredited computer technician schools can often be a point of contention. The U.S. Department of Education has a widely used database of accredited schools and agencies. When clicking on the search by institutional accrediting agency, note that there are two sections: national and regional. Know that just because a school is regionally accredited doesn’t mean that it is necessarily accredited nationally, which means that credits may or may not be transferred. Ultimately, the best way to avoid surprises when transferring credits is to contact the school beforehand so you can make an informed decision before taking a class.

4) What sorts of careers are common for students with this degree?

Upon completing a computer technician degree or program, there are literally hundreds of careers to choose from. Below, we have gathered just a few of them.

Computer Repair Technician: Ever had a computer freeze or break down on you? These are the professionals that fix them. The job usually requires an associate’s degree or certification.
Computer Technical Support Specialist: These techs work on a more full time basis and are often employed in the information technology side of a business. Support may come in the form of in person, over the phone, or over the web.

Network Support Technician:
The entire computer system is the focus of this tech. Servers, security, and more are often part of the job.

System Administrator:
They ensure the efficient operation of a computer system and often anticipate problems before they happen. Design, software, security, and more are involved in this career.

Computer Security Specialist:
Stopping hackers, viruses, etc. is the main focus of this career. They are responsible for installing the security software, monitoring for break-ins, and even identifying vulnerabilities in the system.

Web Developer:
Because even mom and pop stores have a website nowadays, web developers are more in demand. They plan and implement the entire website from homepage to the latest updates.

Database Administrators:
These computer technicians determine ways to store, organize, analyze, use, and present data. Switching from old to new databases or maintaining internet access are just some of the tasks assigned to them.

Computer Engineer:
They work on the more mechanical aspect of computers. Often having the ability to pull them apart and put them back together, computer engineers can also be tasked with designing and building a computer from the ground up.

Computer Systems Programmer:
Once a computer has been built, it must be programmed. Different from an engineer, the programmer actually writes software and programs it into the computer.

Computer Developer:
If a computer is built fine, the software is okay, but it needs to be updated, a developer may be tasked with this. The upgrading and cost control aspects of the job are often found.

As the technology changes, so too will the careers available. With Microsoft, Apple, and Linux constantly competing with each other, a computer technician who knows more than one can also move ahead of the others. Most employers require some form of education, typically an associate’s degree, for entry level positions. Those looking to start in a more managerial or developmental role can often be asked for a graduate degree. Certifications in one or many areas may also be asked of by a potential employer.

5) How Do I Become a Computer Technician?
If you want to be a computer technician, a degree is usually required at the associate level or higher. In order to obtain this or any undergraduate degree, students must apply to a postsecondary institution, college, or university. The application almost always requires a high school diploma or equivalent, entry level exams, or even a minimum grade point average.

Certification in a relevant computer technician area can also be an important step. One of the most common certifications is the Comp TIA A+. It requires the passing of the Essentials and Practical Application exams, each of which consist of 100 questions and take about 90 minutes each to complete. They recommend the candidate have a relevant education and 500 hours of hands on experience in the field or laboratory. Visit the site to get more information, such as pricing or to look at practice questions. You can also view information on the other ten certifications they offer.

The above is by no means the only certification offered in computer technology. Another popular choice is the Cisco Certification. Everyone from engineers to security administrators may be asked to obtain this certification. They offer them in the entry, associate, professional, expert, architect, and specialist level. Take the “Is it for you?” quiz to learn more. If you know which certification you need, check with the vendor itself.

If you know what kind of computer technician career you would like, research it a little more. Look over those who are hiring in the area you would like to work in and see what their requirements are. They may ask for anywhere from a certification for entry level positions to a doctorate degree for the managerial. If you currently are employed in an area of computer technology or have a department and can make a lateral move, check with your supervisor. The cost of an advanced education or relevant certification may be shouldered if not paid for entirely by them.

6) What is the Average Salary for a Computer Technician?
As with all careers, whether or not you work full or part time hugely affects pay. Those who work as a computer repair technician on a part time basis in a superstore, as a sub-contractor, or other area usually make $13.35 per hour according to Payscale. They are also eligible for overtime pay and bonuses for completing work on or ahead of schedules. Although many full time employees may not qualify for overtime pay, bonuses, health insurance, and other benefits can be factored in.

Another common career for someone with an education as a computer technician is network support technician. Their median pay ranges from $30,315 to $47,384 with the average at $38,849. Other similar careers include computer technical support specialist and system administrator with average annual salaries of $41,782 and $51,584, respectively. Factors such as experience, employer, and location are most likely to influence how much a career can pay.

The United States Bureau of Labor Statistics includes this sort of data when factoring in their average salaries for computer network, systems, and database administrators. The highest paying employers for administrators were management and computer system design companies with offerings a little higher than $70,000. Collegiate, elementary, and secondary schools were the lowest paying employers offering an average annual salary of about $56,500.

If looking to learn more about the highest paying computer technician jobs, check out security, engineer, or chief information officer. Often earning over six figures per year in average annual salary, they are required to have everything from a Ph.D. to the ability to hack into a well-guarded system. Security computer technicians can work exclusively for one company or hire themselves out as individuals to test the systems of those who hire them. Because computer engineers are involved in both the designing and building of a system, the time and knowledge they put into their work is invaluable. The chief information officer often runs the entire information technology department of a company and is tasked with the overall performance of the computer systems, which requires loads of education and experience, but can also pay very well.

Paying for college can be a daunting task, but don’t let that stop you from pursuing an education in a field you truly want to go into. The best course of action is to apply to many schools, even if they have an application fee, to see which ones you get into. After being accepted, fill out the FAFSA and any other financial aid forms asked of you. If turned in by deadline, the school will tell you how much tuition will cost out of pocket, which can make choosing one far easier.

Many new students can feel overwhelmed by the process, but the counseling and financial aid offices at just about every school are tasked with easing student’s fears and answering questions. If you need help filling out a form, contact them or visit the website associated with the form. Do not pay anyone for their help in filling out a FAFSA or other government form, as many professionals will do it for free.

Also use caution when and if taking out a student loan. Unlike a scholarship or grant, it is money that does have to be paid back. Once qualified, a student can receive money to be applied towards tuition, books, and other expenses. It does not have to be repaid until graduation and can often have a low interest rate. However, many are dependent upon graduation and can also require a minimum grade point average.

Computer Technician is the only resource dedicated to providing individuals interested in becoming a computer technician with unbiased information about different degree and school options as well as career, job and salary information. To that end, we provide an updated FAQ as well as the only comprehensive database of computer technician schools on the web.

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Fancy a wire-free laptop? Intel just showed one

Intel’s prototype can be wirelessly charged and connected to peripherals

Intel has shown what it calls the “world’s first no-wires” laptop, which has wireless charging and can connect to peripherals without cables.

The prototype laptop frees users from carrying a bulky power adapter, since the laptop recharges after being placed on a wireless charging table or surface.

“This is going to be the world’s first PC where you’d never need to connect a wire to it,” said Intel’s Kirk Skaugen, senior vice president and general manager for Intel’s Client Computing group. He showed the laptop during a speech this week at the Intel Developer Forum in Shenzhen, China.

Intel first talked about the concept of a wire-free laptop in June last year. The laptop is only shipping to software developers looking to write applications that take advantage of the wire-free features.

A number of laptop makers are supporting Intel’s vision of wire-free computers. For example, Lenovo wants to bring such features to its business laptops, Skaugen said.

The laptop shown was a hybrid in which the screen could be pulled out of the keyboard dock. Intel is looking to link laptops wirelessly to peripherals like monitors and external storage through the emerging WiGig technology. At data transfer speeds of 7G bps (bits per second), WiGig is much faster than Wi-Fi.

The wire-free prototype is also the first laptop based on Intel’s upcoming sixth-generation processor code-named Skylake, Skaugen said. PCs based on Skylake will start shipping in the second quarter this year, though it isn’t clear when laptops will start getting wireless charging and other features.

Intel’s wire-free PC isn’t practical today as wireless peripherals aren’t available and wireless charging surfaces for laptops haven’t been installed in restaurants, cafes and other spaces. Intel is talking to airlines, airports, restaurants and other institutions to provide wireless charging stations. It could be years before wireless monitors and external storage devices are widely available.

Another goal of the wire-free PC is to make computing convenient. For example, it will eliminate the need to remember passwords, Skaugen said. That points to the wire-free laptop supporting biometric authentication. Microsoft’s Windows 10 will support biometric login through a feature called Windows Hello.

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HP will buy Aruba to bolster its wireless networking business

Hewlett-Packard will purchase Aruba Networks to boost its wireless networking business, the companies announced Monday.

HP will offer $24.67 per share, giving Aruba a $3 billion value. The deal is worth $2.7 billion taking into account Aruba’s debt and cash.

By buying Aruba, HP will be able to help businesses beef up their wireless networks to meet the demands of an increasingly mobile workforce, the companies said.

This is HP’s first major acquisition since CEO Meg Whitman announced last year that the company would split into two. One half will focus on enterprise products and the other well sell printers and PCs.

Whitman recently said that HP can make acquisitions despite the company’s troubled finances. Last week HP lowered its financial outlook for fiscal 2015 after reporting that revenue and profit decreased in the first quarter. During that quarter, HP’s networking sales fell 11 percent, compared to the year-ago period.

Aruba’s sales, by contrast, are increasing. The company’s 2014 revenue totaled $729 million and was on track to break $1 billion by 2017, according to analysts. Rumors of the deal emerged last week.

The networking gear vendor will join the HP Enterprise group, with Aruba CEO Dominic Orr and CTO Keerti Melkote staying on to lead the new organization.

The boards of both companies have approved the deal, which is expected to close in the second half of HP’s fiscal year. U.S. government regulators and Aruba shareholders must also clear the acquisition.

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